Why do we love? An empirical test…

Source: Why do we love? An empirical test…

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Are humans still evolving? Yes, both globally and locally.

An eternal question by almost everyone – Are humans evolving or are we at an evolutionary equilibria (if that even exists). Jerry says we are evolving still. An interesting read indeed !!!

Why Evolution Is True

The one question I’m inevitably asked after lecturing on evolution to a general audience is this: “Are humans still evolving?” What they really want to know, of course, is whether we’re getting smarter, taller, handsomer, and so on. Well, with respect to those traits I always say, “I have no idea,” but humans are still evolving, albeit in ways that don’t excite most people. I’ve posted about this twice (see here and here), and in recent times we have evidence for H. sapiens evolving to produce, in women, earlier age of first birth, later age of last birth and (also in women) increases in height in some places and decreases in others. Studies in the U.S., which haven’t been conducted elsewhere, show the recent evolution of reduced cholesterol levels and lower blood pressure, and an increased age of menopause.

The U.S-specific data brings up the question of whether even if the entire…

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Why do we love? An empirical test…

Archetypal lovers Romeo and Juliet portrayed by Frank Dicksee

Yeah love is indeed a mysterious thing and has always captured our imaginations. One of the most famous tragic love stories was the Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. Tragic in the sense that the main protagonists die at the altar of their own love. So, what makes love so special? Or indeed as a biologist i ask what is the need for love. Just look what goes into the love process. Endless dating games, elaborate preparations, endless flirtations, also many humiliations and finally if you are lucky the one acceptance.

But wouldn’t it be simpler to just think about procreation alone, i.e., reproduce for the sake of propagation?? Since, evolutionary struggles dictate that there exists differential reproduction and hence propagation of one’s own genes is the thing which ultimately matters. So, then why do we go for this protracted cycle?

To answer this question albeit in an indirect way authors – Malika Ihle, Bart Kempenaers and Wolfgang Forstmeier all from Department of Behavioral Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, Germany conducted a remarkable experiment. The results of this experiment was published recently in PloS Biology – Fitness Benefits of Mate Choice for Compatibility in a Socially Monogamous Species.

As we know that to actually conduct a cost/benefit analysis of love is easier said than done and there would be innumerable ethical concerns regarding the bounds of experimentation with humans. This present study however, used a model animal in an elegant experiment which was designed to find the reproductive consequences of mate choice.

The Experiment

The model species used here was the –zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, a native bird of Australia).

Adult male at Dundee Wildlife Park, Murray Bridge, South Australia

Adult male at Dundee Wildlife Park, Murray Bridge, South Australia

They started off with a population of 160 birds that had recently been isolated from the wild, and then set them up on a sort of speed-dating session, with groups of 20 females to choose freely between 20 males (See figure 1 below). Once the birds had paired off, half of the couples (the “chosen” or C group) were allowed to live happily ever after. For the other half, however, the authors intervened like overbearing Indian parents, and split up the happy pair to forcibly pair them up with other broken-hearted individuals (the “non-chosen” or NC group). The bird couples of both C and NC groups were then left in aviaries to breed. The authors then measured the couple’s behaviour and the number and paternity of dead embryos, dead chicks and surviving offspring.

Experimental Design

Figure 1: Experimental Design

Results

Relative fitness estimates (mean ± SE) of males (n = 84) and females (n = 84) from chosen and non-chosen pairs

Figure 2: Relative fitness estimates (mean ± SE) of males (n = 84) and females (n = 84) from chosen (C) and non-chosen (NC)pairs

The first batch of results is elegantly shown in the figure above.The overall reproductive fitness (measured as the final number of surviving chicks) was 37% higher for individuals in chosen pairs than those in non-chosen pairs. But since reproductive fitness is the sum total of different effects which add up to the total number of offspring produced, it’s vital to look at those parameters and understand the mate choice in C group affected the fitness. To start off the authors noted that both the C and NC group laid similar number of eggs which suggests that their initial investment towards egg laying is not affected by the group they are in and also oblivious to the mismatched mate picked up by the authors. But the nests of NC group had almost three times as many unfertilized eggs as the chosen ones, and a greater number of eggs that were neglected (either buried or lost).

The authors in their earlier studies had known this fact that embryo deaths happened mainly due to genetic incompatibility between the parents, however the egg hatching related deaths happened due to behavioural incompatibility. So, the next step was to compare these two phenomena in the two C and NC groups. They found that though the embryo mortality was similar in both the groups, however mortality of the hatched chicks was comparatively
higher in the NC couples. This suggests that its the behavioral incompatibility
between the non-chosen (NC) parents, and not genetic incompatibility which might be the driving factor behind the observed reduction in overall fitness (Fig. 3, below).

Embryo (A) and offspring (B) mortality rates (parameter estimates [mean ± SE]) in chosen and non-chosen pairs.

Figure 3: Embryo (A) and offspring (B) mortality rates (parameter estimates [mean ± SE]) in chosen (C) and non-chosen(NC) pairs.

So, the next question which the authors asked was if it’s the behavioural incompatibility which leads to greater hatchling death then can it be observed during the elaborate courtship rituals which happened before pairing? What they found was that although the NC and C couples spent almost similar time in courtship rituals the NC group females were far less receptive to NC males and also tended to copulate lesser compared to C group. Harmonious behaviour during courtship in zebra finches have been studied in detail and is taken as sum total of these: friendliness, mutual following, synchronous activity etc. So, a couple showing these behaviours in a greater amount would be termed as the ones who show behavioural compatibility and in anthropomorphic terms ”are in love”. An analysis of this behaviour among the C and NC couples showed that on an average the NC couples showed far less such behaviour than the ones in C group.Apart from these results, when the chicks hatched what was seen that greater proportion of males in NC group showed infidelity than in C group and the majority deaths of chicks which happened in the critical period of first 48 hours was due to lesser paternal care in NC group than in C. 

Discussions

The authors in the end ascribe this difference in reproductive fitness to the behavioural incompatibility between the two groups. They also mention – ‘‘The mechanisms behind such behavioural compatibility, in terms of willingness or ability to cooperate with certain individuals and in terms of coordination between partners need further study, in particular in the context of offspring provisioning.”

In humans, some studies suggest that individuals are more satisfied, more committed, and less likely to engage in domestic violence, when involved in a love-based rather than an arranged marriage (2,3,4). The challenge there is also to find out whether stable and happy marriages result from motivation to cooperate (and to identify what stimulates such feelings, see 5-8), or from congruence in terms of partners’ intrinsic behavioural types [9].

References:

  1. Ihle M, Kempenaers B, Forstmeier W. Fitness Benefits of Mate Choice for Compatibility in a Socially Monogamous Species. PLoS Biol. 2015; 13(9): e1002248. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002248
  2. Xu XH, Whyte MK (1990) Love matches and arranged marriages—A Chinese replication. Journal of Marriage and the Family 52: 709–722.
  3. Sahin NH, Timur S, Ergin AB, Taspinar A, Balkaya NA, Cubukcu S (2010) Childhood trauma, type of marriage and self-esteem as correlates of domestic violence in married women in Turkey. Journal of Family Violence 25: 661–668.
  4. Regan PC, Lakhanpal S, Anguiano C (2012) Relationship outcomes in Indian-American love-based and arranged marriages. Psychological Reports 110: 915–924. PMID: 22897093
  5. Asendorpf JB, Penke L, Back MD (2011) From dating to mating and relating: predictors of initial and long-term outcomes of speed-dating in a community sample. European Journal of Personality 25: 16– 30.
  6. Honekopp J (2006) Once more: Is beauty in the eye of the beholder? Relative contributions of private and shared taste to judgments of facial attractiveness. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Perception and Performance 32: 199–209. PMID: 16634665
  7. Meltzer AL, McNulty JK (2014) “Tell me I’m sexy . . . and otherwise valuable”: Body valuation and relationship satisfaction. Personal Relationships 21: 68–87. PMID: 24683309
  8. Todd PM, Penke L, Fasolo B, Lenton AP (2007) Different cognitive processes underlie human mate choices and mate preferences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 15011–15016. PMID: 17827279
  9. Rammstedt B, Spinath FM, Richter D, Schupp J (2013) Partnership longevity and personality congruence in couples. Personality and Individual Differences 54: 832–835.

7 MISUSED SCIENCE WORDS

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Now there are various words tossed around everyday with little attention towards their exact meaning. And sometimes, i am simply amused by people declaring themselves Google and charging ahead by using words like ”Theory” or ”Model”.  A recent article in Scientific American titled – “Just a Theory”: 7 Misused Science Words  is just the cure i was looking for.  It starts off by listing those very words which i hate to be tossed up with during a dinner party or worse at a scientific conference !! I will list them out in full below and you can all have fun in reading the actual article in Scientific American.

1). Hypothesis

2). Just a theory?

3). Model

4). Skeptic

5). Nature vs. nurture

6). Significant

7). Natural

Now the above words are something which we all encounter during our school and college education. But the misuse of these words shows that people are not taught how science actually works !! Its not how it is showed in cartoons or zombie dystopian movies.

In the end, i would like to quote from the article itself:

Most people tend to use mental shortcuts to make sense of the cacophony of information they’re presented with every day.One of those tendencies is to make a binary distinction between something that is true in an absolute sense and something that’s false or a lie. “With science, it’s more of a continuum. We’re continually building our understanding.”

Additional readings:

1). What is Science? The Scientific Method, LiveScience Website, 2012.

2). The trouble with “science” (guardian.co.uk)

WELL, FINALLY I BID ADIEU TO THE SASQUATCH/AMERICAN BIGFOOT…

Photo of an unidentified animal the Bigfoot Re...

Photo of an unidentified animal the Bigfoot Research Organization claims is a “juvenile Sasquatch” “Jacobs Photos” . . Retrieved 2009-09-16 . (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Well, urban legend has it that Sasquatch aka American BigFoot, the name given to an ape-like creature apparently inhabits forests, mainly in the Pacific Northwest region of North America and it has been some decades that people have been arguing about its reality. Last year in September 2012, Dr. Melba S. Ketchum announced with some big fanfare that she and her team from DNA Diagnostics Inc. havesequenced the genome (mitochondrial and nuclear) of sasquatchfrom all the alleged samples people have collected from some time. However, instead just verifying that Sasquatch is nothing but an urban legend they issued this press release:

“Our study has sequenced 20 whole mitochondrial genomes and utilized next generation sequencing to obtain 3 whole nuclear genomes from purported Sasquatch samples. The genome sequencing shows that Sasquatch mtDNA is identical to modern Homo sapiens, but Sasquatch nuDNA is a novel, unknown hominin related to Homo sapiens and other primate species. Our data indicate that the North American Sasquatch is a hybrid species, the result of males of an unknown hominin species crossing with female Homo sapiens.

Hominins are members of the taxonomic grouping Hominini, which includes all members of the genus Homo. Genetic testing has already ruled out Homo neanderthalis and the Denisova hominin as contributors to Sasquatch mtDNA or nuDNA. “The male progenitor that contributed the unknown sequence to this hybrid is unique as its DNA is more distantly removed from humans than other recently discovered hominins like the Denisovan individual,” explains Ketchum.

“Sasquatch nuclear DNA is incredibly novel and not at all what we had expected. While it has human nuclear DNA within its genome, there are also distinctly non-human, non-archaic hominin, and non-ape sequences. We describe it as a mosaic of human and novel non-human sequence. Further study is needed and is ongoing to better characterize and understand Sasquatch nuclear DNA.”

So, one would immediately say -Yay science proved it exists, right? The answer however will be a big emphatic NO. The prime reason is that science doen’t work on hearsay but on repeatable, well-designed experiments with no ambiguity in either the way its conducted or how samples are gathered. And this is where this so called genetic evidence fails big time.

One of the biggest red flags to this whole study is: How did she get her samples? After all, if she was working from a well-reliable source, that alone might be a big sensation because no physical evidence of Bigfoot exists on record. As it turns out, Dr. Ketchum says her DNA sample was obtained from a blueberry bagel left in the backyard of a Michigan home that, according to the owner, sees regular visits from Sasquatch creatures.

And if the sample gathering itself is in doubt, then how can anyone believe the results ? Another face-palm statement: Fully human mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited from your mother, so she assumes that all Sasquatches had human women as relatively recent ancestors, but at the same time, the nuclear DNA is some bizarre menagerie that includes non-ape sequences? And frankly speaking, any biology student would tell you its hogwash !!

But all of this was from last year, and ever since then she has been trying to publish it in a scientific journal and recent news suggests that she has been unable to clear the peer-review stage. So, in response to this, she has decided to start over – recollect samples, do the whole sequencing again, and re-interpret the results…..Naaaaaaa, thats what any other scientist would have done. What she has done is to buy a journal !!  The Journal of Cosmology was available  she bought it and renamed it to De Novo.  One glance at the website and you are reminded of your art school classes in grade 8. The icons are mis-matched, the colour is horrid and the overall design is completely unprofessional. PZ Myers in is blog Pharyngula has it better:

Then she came out with a special edition. It’s Volume 1, Issue 1. It contains precisely one paper, hers.

You should be laughing by this point.

The online journal is a mess. The layout is funky-ugly, it’s difficult to figure out how to actually get to the paper, and when you navigate to it, it’s got a wretched little “Buy Now” button imbedded in a couple of intersecting blocks of color in a hideous table-like layout. It reminds be of the esthetics of JoC.

Anyway, it’s $30 to buy a paper so bad they had to build a custom journal around it to get it published. Not interested.

So, seeing all this mess i wish to bid adieu to Sasquatch !! May it continue to relive in our science fiction movies…

More on this:

  1. Sasquatch is ill-served, Pharygula, 2013.
  2. What I really want to see is the DNA sequence of an alien Grey, Pharyngula, 2012.
  3. Bigfoot in popular culture, Wikipedia.
  4. Is this Bigfoot … or is it a bear with bad skin?, Daily Mail, 2007.

DARWIN DAY !!

It's Darwin Day!

It’s Darwin Day! (Photo credit: Kaptain Kobold)

Darwin Day commerates the birth anniversary of Charles Darwin who was born on February 12, 1809. And on this day, various scientific institutions, agencies and bodies organise lectures and talks to highlight the awesome contributions of Darwin to science. Without his impressive array of work, science would have been quite bare and we quite ignorant about the inner workings of nature.  So, celebrate this day not in the name of Darwin but what science has done for the betterment of humanity in general. Think about all the inventions and discoveries science has brought us and let’s drink to it !!

So, what better way to celebrate this day  than to showcase the Bird-of-Paradise Project of Cornell Ornithology Lab.  The site gives a wonderful description of their project:

The birds-of-paradise are among the most beautiful creatures on earth—and an extraordinary example of evolutionary adaptation. On this site you can find what few have witnessed in the wild: the displays of color, sound, and motion that make these birds so remarkable. Then you can delve deeper, examining the principles that guided their evolution and the epic adventure it took to bring you all 39 species.

GENOMIC EVIDENCE FOR ADAPTATION TO GLOBAL WARMING??

Global Warming – The ultimate quibble of this century !! Or should i say the “haute” of this century. Why? Now, common ask yourselves, which single topic apart from the religion/atheism debate, you always hear in any gathering or book reading circles or conferences or on social platforms which is ready to divide people into two opposing camps. Books are being written, movies made, debates fought and what for – “The legitimacy of Global warming”. Despite numerous evidences detractors still love to question it. However, a new paper published this month in PNAS provides genomic evidence forphenotypic responses to climatic warming.

What’s it all about?

Ongoing changes in regional climates, especially the trend of warming winters and blazing summers are pushing many species (both plants and animals) to shift their distribution toward higher latitudes and altitudes. Such a change in the species distribution, with an expansion in previously hostile areas and contraction in their own habitats which are becoming less favorable, can occur rapidly both in plants and animals. However, not all species can migrate to lesser hostile areas, and there are many reasons proposed for it. Primarily among them is the increasing trend of Habitat Fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation can result from human expansion into wilder areas resulting in few phenomena:

  • Reduction in the total area of the habitat
  • Isolation of one habitat fragment from other areas of habitat
  • Breaking up of one patch of habitat into several smaller patches
  • Decrease in the average size of each patch of habitat

As, a result of such human activity many species especially plants can’t migrate into other areas resulting into their dwindling numbers. But some species do survive in such increasingly fragmented habitats and hence have adapted to the climatic warming. Though some previous studies inDrosophila melanogaster have shown adaptive trait variation in relation to climate change in both natural and experimental population, however in some cases, the evolutionary response to climate change may be slow due to genetic constraints causing a time lag between the environmental change and an observed evolutionary response. Hence,understanding how various species track climate warming bygenetically based adaptive trait variation and which traits facilitate the evolution of such adaption is important.

What is the new evidence?

Thymus vulgaris

The authors decided to look at Mediterranean wild thyme (Thymus vulgaris), a low growing herbaceous plant which is native to Southern Europe and is often used as a culinary herb. The plant contains many oils and the chemical composition(phenolic or non-phenolic) of it varies in different regions based on the temperature. These oils make a plant adaptable to freezing and hence different climatic areas have plants with varying composition of oils (chemotypes). So it would be worthwhile to see if the recent trend of gradual warming of extreme winter freezing events, has brought about an evolutionary response in plants i.e, has their chemical composition changed over time? Interestingly, any such change in the respective oil compositions in different climactic areas with different temperatures would have a genetic basis. And this is what the authors looked about.

The study area had a Mediterranean climate with summer drought but also severe winter freezing temperatures within the basin as a result of a dramatic temperature inversion In this area, there are six differentchemotypes that are the expression of a genetically controlled polymorphism in T. vulgaris. Two phenolic chemotypes (carvacrol and thymol) are largely dominant on the slopes above 250-m elevation and four nonphenolic chemotypes (linalool, thuyanol-4, α-terpineol, and geraniol) below 200m elevation, where they experience the winter temperature inversion. Hence, phenolic chemotypes are predominantly winter non-tolerant whereas non-phenolic types are winter tolerant.

There is thus a sharp gradient in the chemotype frequency over only 3–5 km that goes from 100%of either phenolic or nonphenolic chemotypes to 100% of the other form, with a narrow transitional zone. In short, nonphenolic chemotypes show adaptation to habitats, which in the past have experienced extreme freezing temperatures in early winter, whereas phenolic chemotypes are sensitive to intense early-winter freezing and occur in habitats where extreme summer drought can exclude nonphenolic chemotypes.

Hypothesis: Phenolic chemotypes (thymol and carvacrol) now occur in sites where they were previously absent or have increased their frequency in the transitional sites due to a relaxation of selection pressure normally associated with extreme early winter freezing temperatures due to climatic warming.

To do so, they compared the chemotype composition of populations observed in the early 1970s  to that in 2009–2010 for 36 populations sampled along six transects. Each transect was <10 km long, each containing six populations, with two “phenolic,” “mixed,” and “nonphenolic” populations.

They found that the mean percentage of phenolic chemotypes in a population was significantly (df = 35, S = 68.5, P < 0.01) higher in the contemporary samples (overall value of 53.1%) than in those of the initial study (47.7%) of 1970’s. The changes in composition of the initial nonphenolic populations were associated with the appearance of the thymol chemotype in all eight of the populations whose composition changed and the carvacrol chemotype in three of them.

The changes reported involved a reduced intensity of freezing events and changes in frequency of freezing tolerant and nontolerant phenotypes in natural populations of the Mediterranean aromatic plant, Thymus vulgaris. A significant appearance of freezing-sensitive phenolic chemotypes in sites where they were historically absent and an increase in their frequency in previously mixed populations was observed. Such changes have occurred in 17 of the 24 populations where they could potentially occur.

Such studies, illustrate that a rapid evolutionary response to temperature modifications can occur where genetic variation is combined with a change in a previously strong selection pressure, even for a perennial woody plant. Hence, this provides quite a neat example of genetic changes brought about by climatic warming.  I guess, the detractors of global warming would be feeling quite uneasy now !!

More on this:

  1. Genetic consequences of climate change for northern plants, Alson, Proceedings of Royal Society B, 2012.
  2. Climate extremes: Observations, modeling, and impacts, Easterling DR, Science, 2000.
  3. Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change, Parmesan C, Annu Rev Ecol Syst Evol, 2006.
  4. Ecological responses to recent climate change, Walther GR, Nature, 2002.
  5. Rapid shifts in plant distribution with recent climate change, Kelly AE, Goulden ML, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 2008.
  6. The distributions of a wide range of taxonomic groups are expanding polewards, Hickling R,Global Change Biology, 2006.
  7. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems, Parmesan C, Nature, 2003.
  8. Running to stand still: Adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change, Jump AS, Ecology Letters, 2005.
  9. Genetic response to rapid climate change: It’s seasonal timing that matters, Bradshaw WE, Molecular Ecology, 2008.
  10. Climate change and evolutionary adaptation, Hoffmann AA, Nature, 2011.

TO QUIVER OR TO SHIVER !!

The title of this post – To Quiver, or to Shiver is taken from a new article published this month in Proceedings of Royal Society London B. The paper deals with an interesting question – If a organism is good at one thing, does it mean that its good at all others too? OR Do you have to pay a price for being the best at something?

What is it all about?

Parasemia plantaginis coll. Mus. Zool. Oulu

Parasemia plantaginis coll. Mus. Zool. Oulu (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Wood Tiger Moths, a species of moth(Parasemia plantaginis) found throughout Europe are widely known for their different wing colourations depending on the place they live.

Now why would this moth have bright colours?

Wouldn’t it attract more predators and hence get eaten up?

It turns out colours are used by various organisms as a predator-defence strategy. There can be two kinds of colouration schemes:

  • Camouflage:It  is one colouration-based predator defence strategy and benefits from variable coloration, which prevents predators from developing a search image for the most abundant phenotype of prey.Because, if the prey have a consistent camouflage colouration then the predator would after a few trials and errors, learn to identify the prey easily and then the prey would be wiped out due to the predation pressure.
  • Aposematism: Situated at the opposite end of the predator aversion strategy spectrum, where prey use conspicuous warning signals to advertise their secondary defences. Warning signals of such organisms are not expected to vary much because predators should learn to avoid a uniform signal more efficiently than a variable signal, leading to greater survival.

Now, Wood Tiger Moth the species in question as seen in the picture above show aposematism and use these conspicuous colours as a warning signal towards predators. But, contrary to the predictions for this warning signal homogeneity,  many such moths possess variable warning signals.

So, if uniform colouration is so important for predator defence, then why does the Wood Tiger Moth show variation in colours?

One reason could be that though different hindwing colours (white or yellow) ,in case of Wood Tiger Moth form the basis of predator defence but as one goes towards the Northern Latitudes, melanization or a general blackening of the hindwing is necessary for maximal absorption of sunlight or thermoregulation.

The general blackening to which i refer is the deposition of melanin, a process called melanization. It is used by many organisms including us !! Its benefits include immune response, thermoregulation etc.

To give you an example, see the below picture of the samples which the authors took from Europe.

Picture1

So, in general as one can see in the Alpine regions where the sunlight is very rare for the whole year, the moths have  less than 20% colouration !! (see, picture above (b))

But why??

It seems that higher melanization limits the amount of other pigments important in the warning signal, thereby setting the stage for atrade-off between defensive signalling and thermoregulation.

The question which the authors looked upon is something like this:

Do variation in male hindwing melanization is linked to thermoregulation and/or involved in a trade-off with protective benefits of colour ?

What did they find?

The authors started off with a combination of field based studies and predation experiments with artificial moths. Have a look at them:

Picture1

  • The amount of melanization increased with increasing latitude in Wood Tiger Moth males from Estonia to north Finland.
  • Individuals in the Alps had a significantly greater amount of melanin covering their hindwings than those in central Finland.
  • Melanization also varied more among individuals in the Alpine region compared with central Finland.
  • Greater melanization also increased the average rate for warming up for the moths.
  • Every 10 per cent increase in the amount of melanin resulted in a 16 per cent increase in the odds of being attacked.

Taken together,the results show the likely existence of a trade-off between thermoregulation and predation risk with respect to the amount of melanin present on the hindwing in Wood Tiger Moths. Specifically, what they found was that greater amounts of melanin in both white and yellow males resulted not only in an increased ability to absorb radiation, but also increased the likelihood of attack by avian predators. The results provide evidence that the differences in costs and benefits of melanin in the two locations can drive phenotypic differences in the warning signal of males on broad and local geographical scales.

Take home message:

If an organism is good at having X, then it must come at some cost. And as X is very costly it does not mean that its not a successful strategy, if the benefits of the costly strategy(X) outweighs the high cost  !!

More on this:

  1. The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies, PLoS One, 2012.
  2. Linking color polymorphism maintenance and speciation, Gray SM, McKinnon JS, TREE, 2007.
  3. Insect melanism: the molecules matter, True JR., TREE, 2003.
  4. Visual predators select for crypticity and polymorphism in virtual prey, Bond AB, Kamil AC., Nature, 2002.

FREEDOM OF SPEECH – HOW FREE SHOULD IT BE? – OPINION OF A THIRD WORLD SCIENTIST

Free Speech

I usually write about science, the exciting new papers which come up, and occasionally on philosophy. So, why have i suddenly gravitated to writing on social policies or to say more accurately – Why do i want to question our society and write about it ?

My fellow colleagues (and me included) are all adept at talking about the philosophies of  heaven & earth,  discuss the latest transgressions of our beloved politicians over a mug of hot, steaming coffee. But the moment our coffee mugs are empty, we stop thinking about the world outside our closed walls. We go back in our small cocoons called university where we don’t think about the big, bad world outside but eat and think science.But occasionally something happens in that big, bad world which forces us to look beyond our glass domes.

The Outcry

Such an event happened this year at the Jaipur Literary Fest, considered as the biggest literary event in Asia, held annually in Indian city of Jaipur  since 2006. In a panel discussion on “The Republic of Ideas,” with IBN7 Editor Ashutosh, Tehelka editor Tarun Tejpal, famed historian Patrick French, philosopher Richard Sorabji, and sociologist Ashis Nandy, which was moderated by, Urvashi Butalia. After an interesting discussion on the “promise” of the Indian Republic and Constitution, the exchange turned to the theme of corruption and the importance of the anti-corruption protests led by Anna Hazare.

In trying to deconstruct the sociology of corruption, Tarun Tejpal argued that we need to first understand the – “corruption” of  poor and the marginalised people in the society as an essential strategy to break the shackles of the suppressive nature of our rules, regulations and laws. Further on, he marked the “so-called diverse” Indian society as deeply divided, hierarchical and oppressive, our laws and societal rules, are mostly designed to “keep out” the oppressed from having their say. The corruption of “people like us” — an elitist which has both the resources and power to undermine the politico-judicial system — often goes unnoticed, and if discovered, rarely ever get prosecuted. The crimes of the “others,” in contrast, not only get prosecuted, but also generate outrage, in part because they do not have the necessary skills to successfully cover up their corruption.

“As long as this is the case, the Indian Republic will survive,”  said Prof. Ashish Nandy replying to Tejpal’s comments, citing the example of West Bengal, which he said was the State with the least extent of corruption. “In the last hundred years, nobody from the OBCs, SCs and STs has come to power there. It is an absolutely clean State.”

These remarks led to strong reactions from the audience, and one of the panelists  Mr. Ashutosh, said it was the “most bizarre statement” he had ever heard. Some members of the audience were also quite enraged to the remarks and asked Professor Nandy to retract them. Dalit activists, later on staged a demonstration against the so-called “offensive remarks,” and a First information report was lodged by tribal activist Rajpal Meena against Professor Nandy and Mr. Roy, for which the Section 506 (criminal intimidation) of the Indian Penal Code and Section 3 (1) of the Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act was cited . The police have started to investigate the matter.

Later on, despite Prof. Nandy’s clarying remarks saying that he was taken out of context, the media ire against him hasn’t cooled down. In giving a small summary the editor of Tehelka magazine has this to say:

Why does it matter ?

Ashis Nandy’s choice of words, phrases, and examples can certainly be questioned. He is not known as an organised and media-loving public speaker. One can also beg to differ with both his argument and analysis. For example, the way he didn’t clarify his statement by differentiating the “corruption of the poor” and the “corruption of their leaders,”whose pure neglect of rules often results in them looting the very poor who also fall into their constituents. Nevertheless, Nandy’s argument that the “rules of the game” have been fixed by the ruling, elite class to which he too belongs, which remains a highly privileged lot, and hence, the deliberate neglect of those rules is an inevitable strategy for those seeking to survive and also for upward mobility, certainly has a lot of merit especially in India, where the income gap between rich and poor classes have widened. Clamping down on such nuanced utterances and confusing statements of the kind Prof. Nandy made will only make us a poorer democracy and Republic than what we already are.

Free speech is recognized in many western developed countries as the basis of their civilization. To disagree and be offended but still defend it to death. Voltaire famously said “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it” and this is also their basis for democracy. It is on this precarious and precious right does a healthy civil society and political society depend. All societies that engage in preserving ‘sentiments’ of either the oppressor or oppressed by curbing speech have failed and continue to do so. It is shameful for any politician to call for curbs on speech simply on offense, it is further shameful and immoral for a freethought humanist group to call for a curb on free speech of an individual. There has been no compelling logically coherent explanation given other than non-sequitur engaging question begging statements.

Freedom of speech by State is everything to freethought soaked society and to grow rational, humanist thinking. ‘Sunlight is the best disinfectant’ has been said in the American supreme court, which has proven to be true. A society where all ideas are openly talked about and entertained no matter how abhorrent or distatesful, is a society that improves. America has done better than India and Pakistan partially due to this openness. What Ms. Mayawati has proposed is draconian, fascist and anti-humanist. Leaving aside there is a purposeful misunderstanding of a statement taken out of context in Prof. Ashish’s speech, even without context there is no logical and humanist excuse to jail him. It will remain an anti-humanist draconian and oppressive action which will only be of harm in precedent to freethought and freedoms.

The burden of proof lies with those who wish to curb a right. There is good review of free speech and its foundational premise in building civil society in the American court decision supporting Westboro Baptist Church. Idea of anti-racism is also open to criticism, which is the reason why there are racist academics who publicly engage in racist publications such as Satoshi Kanazawa. They are fought by social and academic boycott, not by legal sanction.

ACLU is known for protecting the civil liberties and is traditionally viewed as a liberal group. One of its finest moments came in  1978. I  am quoting that incident from ACLU’s website:

ACLU defended a Nazi group that wanted to march through the Chicago suburb of Skokie, Illinois where many Holocaust survivors lived. The ACLU persuaded a federal court to strike down three ordinances that placed significant restrictions on the Nazis’ First Amendment right to march and express their views. The decision to take the case was a demonstration of the ACLU’s commitment to the principle that constitutional rights must apply to even the most unpopular groups if they’re going to be preserved for everyone. Many now consider this one of the ACLU’s finest hours.

An important matter to take a note of is that this is not the first time when the largest democracy in the world, India has not clamped down free speech, which remains a fundamental right here. A simple look intoWikipedia for free speech violation gives me this huge list:

  • In February 2009, the police filed a complaint against Ravindra Kumar and Anand Sinha, the editor and the publisher respectively of the Kolkata-based English daily The Statesman. The police charged Kumar and Sinha under section 295A because they had reprinted an article from The Independent by its columnist Johann Hari. Titled “Why should I respect oppressive religions?”, the article stated Hari’s belief that the right to criticise any religion was being eroded around the world. Muslim protestors in Kolkata reacted to Hari’s belief by violent demonstrations at the offices ofThe Statesman.
  • In September or October 2007, the police in Pune arrested four Bangalore-based software-engineers for posting on the Internet an obscene profile of Chhatrapati Shivaji, a sixteenth-centuryMaratha warrior king, clad in female underwear.
  • In May 2007, a Buddhist group in Maharashtra’s Amaravati district said their religious sentiments were hurt, and filed a complaint against Rakhi Sawant, an actress, because she posed in a bathtub against a statue of Lord Buddha.
  • In March 2007, a newspaper editor BV Seetharam was arrested under the Sections 153A, 153B, and 295 of the IPC for allegedly promoting religious hatred. He had written articles criticizing the public nudity of the Digambara Jain monks.
  • In 2007, the authorities charged ninety-one-year-old Maqbool Fida Husain with hurting religious sentiments by painting Mother India as a naked woman.
  • In December 2006, a complaint was filed against cricketer Ravi Shastri for hurting the religious feelings of Hindus by his allegedly eating beef during a Test match in Johannesburg.
  • On 2 August 2006, two religious groups in Ahmedabad complained to the police that their religious sentiments were hurt because a garment-maker had printed text from the Hindu and Jain religions on clothing. The police filed the complaint as a matter under section 295.
  • In November 2012, Maharashtra Police arrested Shaheen Dhada (aged 21) for questioning the total shutdown in the city for Bal Thackeray’s funeral in a Facebook post, and also her friend Renu Srinivasan (aged 20) for liking her post. Although no religious issue was involved, the two were charged under Section 295 (A) for hurting religious sentiments, apart from Section 66 (a) of the Information Technology Act 2000.

So, in times like these when the world is considering India to be one of the next superpowers, how can a humble budding scientist like me stay quiet and listen to the regular subversion of free speech in my country. Sometimes its done in the name of religion, caste, political figure, some old archaic customs and what not !! You name it, and India will probably ban it in the name of protecting the cultural diversity and hate speech. What it needs is to define the boundaries, limitations and definitions of hate speech. Make free speech, really FREE.

In the end, i would like to reiterate the words of Shoma Chaudhury, Tehelhka’s editor:

“What is the whole idea of Freedom of Speech, without the idea of discomfort? If we are only going to speak in ways that would make each other feel comfortable, then we might as well give up on the idea of free speech in India.”

More on this:

  1. Two women arrested for Anti-Shiv Sena comments on Facebook, government orders enquiry, Economic Times, 2012.
  2. Mumbai shuts down due to fear, not respect, The Hindu, 2012.
  3. A Forgotten History, Outlook India, 2007.
  4. India’s First Blasphemy Prosecution, International Humanist and Ethical Union, 2002.
  5. Sacred text on clothes: fashion designer booked, Nerve, 2006.
  6. M F Husain loses home over nude ‘Mother India’, Express India, 2007.
  7. Case filed against Ravi Shastri for eating beef, Zee News India, 2007.
  8. Freedom of expression under attack, The Hindu, 2007.
  9. Pune cops book Orkut user, Times of India, 2007.
  10. Editor arrested for ‘outraging Muslims’, The Independent, 2009.
  11. Indian police probe Nandy caste remark (91live.in)

SOME MUSINGS ABOUT MORTALITY

mortality

Okay, i agree i am not 60 years old retired chap who has started worrying about the inescapable, insidious start of significant physical–and sometimes mental–decline leading to a sort of death anxiety. Rather, i am in my late 20’s, single chap who recently has had some time to ponder about all things in life-big and small. And among all those one of the biggies is definitely – Death. I know you must be thinking what about the other things in life – Love, relationships, career or kids, don’t they matter at all? I agree with this assessment of yours that there are too many things in life to ponder about other than death. For death, is not a continuation of life  as all the religious books loftily say (brag?) about but death is a sort of full stop  An ending to a life, to all his/her dreams, thoughts, wishes. For nothing progresses after death come knocking at your door. And if i remember correctly, this was indeed the reason i began to think about it.

Death or lets say Mortality (for those people who begin to equate the word death with the ghastly image of a tall hooded chap with a scythe in its hand or the Reaper, as is known in some circles) is indeed one of the neglected things in life. I am reminded of Saul Bellow‘s ruminations about it: Death is the dark backing that a mirror needs if we are able to see anything. 

Despite being so important, we daily run and hide from it seeking shelter in humor, hedge against it with good works, shun reminders of our mortality. Yet we all share the reality of mortality, and we know it, try as we might to throttle our thoughts about it.

The previous evening i had a mild-tempered discussion with a friend who was quite sure that one can live one’s life without even pondering about death if you live by the name of god. His prime argument being you live on this earth as god’s creation, consume god’s gifts ( food, air etc) and then when we die, we simply shift our residences to the A-class facilities called Heaven. And the faithful buy their ticket to heaven by incessantprayers. At this juncture of our conversation, i was reminded of the definition of “prayer” by Ambrose Pierce in his Devils’s Dictionary:

Prayer: A petition that the laws of nature be suspended in favour of the petitioner; himself confessedly unworthy. 

I chuckled and decided to share in the joke hidden here.

“The man who prays is the one who thinks that god has arranged matters all wrong, but also thinks that he can instruct god how to put them right.”

Somewhere in here is the realisation that nobody is in charge, and hence this call to prayer, this call to delay or deny the realisation of mortality is“self-cancelling” as the late Hitchens said.

Now, i understand this faith, but just didn’t see why we should believe in that. So, i decided to put my obliging friend on a test of faith. What about a devout fellow with a life-threatening metastasing  tumour, (or as Hitchens described it “blind, emotionless alien” ) wouldn’t he/she want to prolong his/her life to be with friends, family and kids? Or does he/she decide to give up earth and migrate to heaven? The answer in many cases comes to the fact that everyone appreciates the modern benefits of medicine and hence prolong their own life. So, saying that they don’t think about mortality would be simply wrong and quite a fallacious statement in itself. And invoking the argument that gods awards the appropriate cancers is strange, since you must also account for the numbers of infants who contract leukemia. Hence, both the arguments don’t work – devout people don’t think of mortality and they just want to go heaven. By the way, the evening ended by a toast to our status as a mortal animal and immortal friendships we make while alive

Still are thy pleasant voices, thy nightingales, awake;

For Death, he taketh all away, but them he cannot take.

(From, the ode of Calimachus to his beloved Heraclitus)

I still remember when as a kid living in the riotous aftermath of the bloodyBabri Masjid demolition,  witnessing the terrible shock of bodies lying bruised, some killed. One would think the carnage which men undertook in the name of an invisible, inactive and hypothetical god  might have sensitized me to the effects of our dear friend, death. But alas, in all those sufferings and even when popping up this latest pill to alleviate my debilitating spine, i am constantly reminded of our perilous position. Death or Mortality is our constant companion, whether being brought upon us due to irrational acts of man or the unforgiving nature of blind chance it always strikes a note of fear.

I have seen the moment of my greatness flicker,

And i have seen the eternal Footman hold my coat, and

         snicker,

And in short, I was afraid.

(From, T.S. Eliot, “The Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock“)

So where does it leave me? I do realise that we are mere mortal animals and cannot avoid death by incessant/irrelevant prayers or even by the ever-mordernisation of medicine. I have seen death dancing in people’s eyes willing to kill for the same god who apparently also gives life to the victim. I have seen death in the faint- heart beats of a dying man. I have seen them all, you would say. And yet in some corner of my mind, i am still afraid of its cold embrace, it’s ever watching eyes and its constant companionship. But at least i am not blind to it and best of all i can count it to be my ever vigilant friend. Ahh don’t worry i am not being drawn into  Nietzsche.

Death has this much to be said for it:

You don’t have to get out of bed for it.

Wherever you happen to be

They bring it to you – free

(Kingsley Amis)

In an ode to the polemical genius, Christopher Hitchens